Branch – A branch is any set of code changes that has been given a unique name. It is a workspace created for a specific set of changes, and the name should describe the changes that are being made in that job.
Clone – Forked files live in your GitHub account (origin), but you work on them on your local machine. You can do this through GitHub by cloning the files from origin to local.
Fetch – This is the term used to describe downloading any changed files from a remote repository into your local repository. Note that after this process you still need to merge them into your own local files.
Fork – In order to work on remote files you first need to take a copy of them to your own GitHub account. This is called a fork and it involves copying the files from the “official” repo (upstream) to your own account (origin).
Local – The files on your local machine where you will be making your changes.
Merge – This is the process for combining different sets of changed files. You will be alerted if there are any conflicts that need to be resolved.
Origin – Your fork of the project files that live in your GitHub account.
Push – You push (or publish) files from your local machine to your GitHub repository.
Pull – This is the process that is used to fetch and download content from a remote repository and immediately update the local repository to match that content. So pull is a combination of fetch and merge.
Pull Request – A pull request (PR) sends a message to the people who maintain the “official” repo, asking them to consider adding in your edits.
Publish – see Push
Repository – Files get stored in a repository (repo for short) which is like a separate locker for each project. The repo also stores each file’s revision history.
Upstream – The “official” project files that live on the main repo in GitHub